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Country overview

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Click column heading to sort, click country name for details. Please note that only countries with quotas are listed below.

Country Quota Type(s) Results last election Click to sort by % of women
in parliament

Afghanistan
(SNTV)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas for the Upper House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

69 of 249 27.7%

Albania
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

25 of 140 17.9%

Algeria
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

146 of 462 31.6%

Angola
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House

75 of 220 34.1%

Argentina
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas for the Upper House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level
  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

94 of 257 36.6%

Armenia
(Parallel)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House

14 of 131 10.7%

Australia
(AV)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

39 of 150 26%

Austria
(List PR)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

61 of 183 33.3%

Bangladesh
(FPTP)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

69 of 348 19.8%

Belgium
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas for the Upper House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

59 of 150 39.3%

Bolivia
(MMP)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas for the Upper House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level
  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

69 of 130 53.1%

Bosnia and Herzegovina
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

9 of 42 21.4%

Botswana
(FPTP)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

6 of 63 9.5%

Brazil
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas for the Upper House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

51 of 513 9.9%

Burkina Faso
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

20 of 127 15.7%

Burundi
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas for the Upper House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

34 of 105 32.4%

Cameroon
(FPTP¤PBV¤List PR)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

56 of 180 31.1%

Canada
(FPTP)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

76 of 308 24.7%

Cape Verde
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

15 of 72 20.8%

Chile
(List PR)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

19 of 120 15.8%

China
(No direct elections)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House

699 of 2,987 23.4%

Colombia
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas for the Upper House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

33 of 165 20%

Congo, Democratic Republic of
(Parallel)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas for the Upper House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

44 of 492 8.9%

Costa Rica
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level
  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

19 of 57 33.3%

Croatia
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

36 of 151 23.8%

Cyprus
(List PR)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

6 of 56 10.7%

Czech Republic
(List PR)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

39 of 200 19.5%

Côte d'Ivoire
(FPTP¤PBV)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

28 of 255 11%

Denmark
(List PR)

70 of 179 39.1%

Djibouti
(MMP)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House

7 of 65 10.8%

Dominican Republic
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

38 of 183 20.8%

Ecuador
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

53 of 137 38.7%

Egypt
(TRS¤PBV)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

75 of 568 13.2%

El Salvador
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level
  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

23 of 84 27.4%

Equatorial Guinea
(List PR)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

22 of 100 22%

Eritrea
(No direct elections)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

22 of 105 21%

Ethiopia
(FPTP)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

152 of 547 27.8%

France
(TRS)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas for the Upper House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level
  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

155 of 577 26.9%

Georgia
(Parallel)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

18 of 150 12%

Germany
(MMP)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

229 of 630 36.3%

Ghana
(FPTP)

30 of 275 10.9%

Greece
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level
  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

69 of 300 23%

Guatemala
(List PR)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

21 of 158 13.3%

Guinea
(Parallel)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

25 of 114 21.9%

Guyana
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House

21 of 67 31.3%

Haiti
(TRS)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas for the Upper House

4 of 95 4.2%

Honduras
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

33 of 128 25.8%

Hungary
(MMP)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

19 of 199 9.5%

Iceland
(List PR)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

25 of 63 39.7%

India
(FPTP)

  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

62 of 543 11.4%

Indonesia
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

94 of 560 16.8%

Iraq
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

83 of 328 25.3%

Ireland
(STV)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House

25 of 166 15.1%

Israel
(List PR)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

27 of 120 22.5%

Italy
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level
  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

179 of 630 28.4%

Jordan
(Parallel)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

18 of 150 12%

Kazakhstan
(List PR)

26 of 107 24.3%

Kenya
(FPTP)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas for the Upper House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level
  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

65 of 350 18.6%

Korea, Republic of
(Parallel)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level
  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

47 of 300 15.7%

Kosovo
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

40 of 120 33.3%

Kyrgyzstan
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House

28 of 120 23.3%

Lebanon
(BV)

4 of 128 3.1%

Lesotho
(MMP)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

30 of 120 25%

Liberia
(FPTP)

8 of 73 11%

Libya
(Parallel)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

30 of 200 15%

Lithuania
(Parallel)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

34 of 141 24.1%

Luxembourg
(List PR)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

14 of 60 23.3%

Macedonia, former Yugoslav Republic (1993-)
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

40 of 123 32.5%

Malawi
(FPTP)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

32 of 192 16.7%

Mali
(TRS)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

14 of 147 9.5%

Malta
(STV)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

10 of 70 14.3%

Mauritania
(TRS)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas for the Upper House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

37 of 147 25.2%

Mauritius
(BV)

  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

8 of 69 11.6%

Mexico
(MMP)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas for the Upper House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level
  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

211 of 500 42.2%

Moldova, Republic of
(List PR)

20 of 101 19.8%

Mongolia
(Parallel)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

10 of 74 13.5%

Montenegro
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

12 of 81 14.8%

Morocco
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

66 of 395 16.7%

Mozambique
(List PR)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

99 of 250 39.6%

Namibia
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level
  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

43 of 104 41.3%

Nepal
(Parallel)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

176 of 597 29.5%

Netherlands
(List PR)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

58 of 150 38.7%

Nicaragua
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level
  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

37 of 92 40.2%

Niger
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level
  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

15 of 113 13.3%

Norway
(List PR)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

67 of 169 39.6%

Pakistan
(Parallel)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas for the Upper House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

67 of 342 19.6%

Palestinian Territory, Occupied
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

17 of 132 12.9%

Panama
(FPTP¤List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House

11 of 71 15.5%

Paraguay
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas for the Upper House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level
  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

14 of 80 17.5%

Peru
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

28 of 130 21.5%

Philippines
(Parallel)

  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level
  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

79 of 289 27.3%

Poland
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

110 of 460 23.9%

Portugal
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

61 of 230 26.5%

Republic of The Congo (Brazzaville)
(TRS)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

10 of 136 7.4%

Romania
(MMP)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

55 of 412 13.3%

Rwanda
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas for the Upper House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

51 of 80 63.7%

Samoa
(FPTP¤BV)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House

2 of 49 4.1%

Saudi Arabia
(No direct elections)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

30 of 151 19.9%

Senegal
(Parallel)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

64 of 150 42.7%

Serbia
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

85 of 250 34%

Sierra Leone
(FPTP)

  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

15 of 121 12.4%

Slovakia
(List PR)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

28 of 150 18.7%

Slovenia
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level
  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

32 of 90 35.6%

Solomon Islands
(FPTP)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House

1 of 50 2%

Somalia
(In transition)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House

38 of 275 13.8%

South Africa
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level
  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

163 of 400 40.8%

South Sudan
(In transition)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas for the Upper House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

88 of 332 26.5%

Spain
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas for the Upper House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level
  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

126 of 350 36%

Sri Lanka
(List PR)

13 of 225 5.8%

Sudan
(Parallel)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House

88 of 354 24.9%

Swaziland
(FPTP)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas for the Upper House

4 of 65 6.2%

Sweden
(List PR)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

152 of 349 43.6%

Switzerland
(List PR)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

57 of 200 28.5%

Taiwan
(Parallel)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

37 of 113 32.7%

Tanzania, United Republic of
(FPTP)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level
  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

126 of 350 36%

Thailand
(In transition)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

79 of 500 15.8%

Timor-Leste
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

25 of 65 38.5%

Togo
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House

14 of 91 15.4%

Trinidad and Tobago
(FPTP)

12 of 42 28.6%

Tunisia
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House

68 of 217 31.3%

Turkey
(List PR)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

78 of 550 14.2%

Uganda
(FPTP)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

131 of 375 34.9%

United Kingdom
(FPTP)

  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

143 of 650 22%

Uruguay
(List PR)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas for the Upper House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level
  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

16 of 99 16.2%

Uzbekistan
(TRS)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

24 of 150 16%

Vanuatu
(SNTV)

  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level

0 of 52 0%

Venezuela
(Parallel)

28 of 165 17%

Zimbabwe
(FPTP)

  • Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House
  • Legislated quotas for the Upper House
  • Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level
  • Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties

85 of 270 31.5%

Total # countries with constitutional, electoral or political party quotas: 128
Average level of representation for women countries with quotas: 23.0%