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At a glance

Structure of Parliament: Bicameral

Are there legislated quotas...

  • Yes for the Single/Lower House?
  • Yes for the Upper House?
  • Yes at the Sub-national level?

Are there voluntary quotas...

  • No adopted by political parties?

Is there additional information?

Yes

Rwanda

(Republic of Rwanda)

Single/Lower house

Chambre des Députés / Chamber of Deputies

Total seats:80
Total women:51
% women: 64%
Election year:2013
Electoral system:List PR
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas
Election details: IDEA Voter Turnout
IPU Parline
Legal sourceDetails
Quota type:
Legislated Candidate Quotas
Constitution‘The State of Rwanda commits itself that women are granted at least 30 per cent of posts in decision making organs’ (Constitution, Article 9 [4]). The 80 members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected as follows: 53 members elected by direct universal suffrage through a secret ballot using closed list proportional representation, of which at least 30% must be seats reserved for women; 24 women (2 elected from each province and from the city of Kigali by an electoral college with a women-only ballot); 2 members elected by the National Youth Council; and 1 member elected by the Federation of the Associations of the Disabled (Constitution, Article 76).
Electoral law The election of the 24 women deputies from across the country’s provinces is provided for in the following manner: ‘Twenty four (24) female Deputies shall be elected by specific organs in accordance with national administrative entities. A Presidential Order shall determine a national administrative entity and the number of women Deputies to be elected at each entity. At each entity through which election has been conducted, candidates who obtain more votes shall be considered as elected’ (Article 109 of Organic Law 03/2010/OL of 18 June 2010 governing presidential and legislative elections).
Legal sanctions for non-compliance: No None
Rank order/placement rules: No None

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Last updated 2014-04-07

Upper house

Sénat / Senate

Total seats: 26
Total women:10
% women: 38%
Election year:2011
Electoral system:Indirectly elected and appointed.
Quota type: Reserved seats
Election details: IPU Parline
Legal sourceDetails
Quota type:
Reserved seats
Constitution ‘The State of Rwanda commits itself that women are granted at least 30 per cent of posts in decision making organs’ (Constitution, Article 9 [4]). The total of 26 members of the Senate are either indirectly elected or appointed. Article 82 of the Constitution (2005) states that ‘within the 26 members in the senate at least thirty per cent (30%) should be women’. (Constitution, Article 82).
Legal sanctions for non-compliance: N/A Not applicable
Rank order/placement rules: N/A Not applicable

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Last updated 2014-04-07

Quota at the Sub-National Level

Quota type:Legislated Candidate Quotas
Legal sourceDetails
Quota type:
Legislated Candidate Quotas
Electoral law ‘At every Sector, one female member and one male member of Council shall be elected through direct and secret ballot.’ (Article 155 of Law 27/2010 of 19/06/2010 on elections) In addition, '... at least thirty per cent (30%) of all District Council members shall be women and shall be elected through indirect and secret ballot as well as by the members of the Council Bureau of Sectors’ (Article 156). Political party legislation: ‘Each political organization shall ensure that at least thirty per cent (30%) of posts that are subjected to elections are occupied by women’ (Article 5, Organic Law 16/2003 of 27/06/2003 governing political organizations and politicians as amended by Organic Law 19/2007 of 04/05/2007).
Legal sanctions for non-compliance: No None
Rank order/placement rules: No None

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Last updated 2014-03-28

Additional information

Rwanda adopted a new Constitution in 2003. In addition to constituting a mandatory minimum 30 per cent gender quota in all decision-making bodies, the Constitution explicitly recognizes the responsibility of political organizations to ‘participate in the education of citizens on politics based on democracy and elections and operate in such a manner as to ensure that women and men have equal access to elective offices’ (Article 52, Constitution, Amendment 2 of 8 December 2005).

In 2007, the Law on Political Organizations and Politicians was amended, establishing that party lists for all elective offices must contain at least 30 per cent women candidates. However, the law does not contain any provisions regarding the rank order of women candidates. Following this amendment and in combination with the 24 reserved seats for women, the Rwandan Chamber of Deputies reached a worldwide record in the 2008 legislative elections, as 56.25 per cent of the elected deputies were women. This positive record was repeated in the 2013 legislative elections, when women constituted 63.75 per cent of the total number of elected deputies.

Rwanda’s remarkable progress in increasing women’s political participation and representation in the post- genocide period is largely credited to the introduction of these electoral special measures, as well as other legal acts such as the law for the prohibition of all forms of discrimination and sectarianism, and the Code of Conduct of Political Organizations and Their Members (adopted by the National Consultative Forum of Political Organizations in Rwanda in 2005). The code promotes rules and regulations, discipline and integrity, and governs all political activities in Rwanda.

Last updated 2014-03-28

Sources

LEGAL SOURCES:
  • Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda (Official Gazette, special issue of 4 June 2003, p. 119) and its amendments of 2 December 2003 (Official Gazette, special issue of 2 December 2003, p. 11) and of 8 December 2005, accessed 04 April 2014;
  • Organic Law no. 03/2010/OL of 18/06/2010 repealing Organic Law no. 17/2003 of 07/7/2003 governing presidential and legislative elections as amended and complemented to date, Official Gazette, special issue, 19 June 2010, accessed 04 April 2014;
  • Organic Law no. 19/2007 of 04/05/2007 modifying and complementing Organic Law no. 16/2003 of 27/06/2003 governing political organizations and politicians, accessed 04 April 2014;

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