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At a glance

Structure of Parliament: Bicameral

Are there legislated quotas...

  • Yes for the Single/Lower House?
  • Yes for the Upper House?
  • Yes at the Sub-national level?

Are there voluntary quotas...

  • Yes adopted by political parties?

Is there additional information?

Yes

Mexico

(United Mexican States)

Single/Lower house

Cámara de Diputados / Chamber of Deputies

Total seats:500
Total women:184
% women: 37%
Election year:2012
Electoral system:MMP
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas
Election details: IDEA Voter Turnout
IPU Parline
Legal sourceDetails
Quota type:
Legislated Candidate Quotas
Electoral law The Federal Chamber of Deputies is composed of 500 members, elected for a 3-year term, 300 of whom are elected in single-member constituencies by plurality vote, with the remaining 200 members elected by proportional representation (PR) in five 40-seat constituencies. Political parties are required to guarantee that at least 40% of the candidates on the lists are of the same gender. This applies to both lists of candidates for the PR election, and candidates for the constituency elections. However, parties that democratically elect their candidates are exempt from these requirements of the Electoral Code (Código Federal de Instituciones y Procedimientos Electorales, COFIPE, Article 219).
Legal sanctions for non-compliance: Electoral law Parties not complying with Articles 219 and 220 will have 48 hours to rectify their lists. After this period, if still found to be non-compliant, parties will be publicly reprimanded by the General Council of the Federal Electoral Institute (IFE) and given an extra period of 24 hours to rectify their list. Finally, if the 24 hours pass and the party is still in a state of non-compliance with quota regulations, its electoral lists will be rejected by the IFE (COFIPE, Article 221).
Rank order/placement rules: Electoral law For the PR elections, each segment of 5 candidates on the list shall have 2 candidates of each sex, alternating between men and women candidates (COFIPE, Article 220).

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Last updated 2014-04-04

Upper house

Cámara de Senadores / Senate

Total seats: 128
Total women:42
% women: 33%
Election year:2012
Electoral system:MMP
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas
Election details: IPU Parline
Legal sourceDetails
Quota type:
Legislated Candidate Quotas
Electoral law The Senate is composed of 128 members, 96 of whom are elected in single-member constituencies by plurality vote, with the remaining 32 members elected by proportional representation (PR) in a single nationwide constituency. Political parties are required to guarantee that at least 40% of the candidates on the lists are of the same gender. This applies to both lists of candidates for the PR election, and candidates for the constituency elections. However, parties that democratically elect their candidates are exempt from these requirements (COFIPE, Article 219).
Legal sanctions for non-compliance: Electoral law Parties not complying with the law will have at first 48 hours to rectify their lists, or will be publicly reprimanded. 24 hours after the reprimand, the IFE will refuse to register the list (COFIPE, Article 221).
Rank order/placement rules: Electoral law For the PR elections, each segment of five candidates on the list shall have two candidates of each sex, alternating men and women (COFIPE, Article 220).

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Last updated 2013-12-05

Quota at the Sub-National Level

Quota type:Legislated Candidate Quotas
Legal sourceDetails
Quota type:
Legislated Candidate Quotas
Electoral law Elections at the sub-national level are regulated by each state. Please see additional information.
Legal sanctions for non-compliance: State regulations Elections at the sub-national level are regulated by each state. Please see additional information.
Rank order/placement rules: State regulations Elections at the sub-national level are regulated by each state. Please see additional information.

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Last updated 2014-03-25

Voluntary Political Party Quotas*

PartyAcronymOfficial NameDetails, Quota provisions
Institutional Revolutionary Party PRI Partido Revolucionario Instituional PRI has a 50 percent quota for women (article 38, party statutes).

* Only political parties represented in parliament are included. When a country has legislated quotas in place, only political parties that have voluntary quotas that exceed the percentage/number of the national quota legislation are presented in this table.

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Last updated 2009-12-02

Additional information

In 1996 a temporary article of law was approved that encouraged political parties at the national level to consider adopting equality policies in their party statutes. The proposed aim was to have no more than 70 per cent of candidates of each sex for both houses of parliament.

In 2002, the Congress of the Union (i.e. both houses of parliament) approved reforms to COFIPE that require political parties to guarantee that women constitute at least 30 per cent of candidates to the Senate and to the Chamber of Deputies—or, more specifically, that no more than 70 per cent of candidates and substitutes on lists for proportional representation (PR) and constituency elections are of the same sex. This legislation requires that parties include this principle in their party constitutions. The quota was increased to at least 40 per cent in 2008 (Cerva Cerna 2008: 2, 8–9).

Parties that democratically elect their candidates through primaries instead of nominating them are exempt from the quota regulations. However, what constitutes a democratic election is not legally specified and has led to a wide range of practices on the part of parties trying to avoid the quota (Baldez 2007; Peschard 2003).

As of 2009, 18 of the 32 Mexican states had enacted quota laws for the state legislative bodies. Sonora, Chihuahua, Oaxaca and Sinaloa states were pioneers, having passed laws before 2000. 2003 saw a surge when five states passed quota laws. However, Sonora state abandoned quotas in 2006, claiming that they hindered women’s representation (Zetterberg 2012).





Last updated 2014-03-25

Sources

LEGAL SOURCES:
OTHER SOURCES:
  • Baldez, L., ‘Primaries vs. Quotas: Gender and Candidate Nominations in Mexico, 2003’, Latin American Politics and Society, 49/3 (2007);
  • Cerva Cerna, D., ‘Los partidos políticos frente a la equidad de género’ [Political parties against gender equality], in B. Llanos and K. Sample (eds), Del dicho al hecho: manual de buenas practicas para la participación de mujeres en los partidos políticos latinoamericanos [From words to action: best practices for women’s participation in Latin American political parties] (Stockholm: International IDEA, 2008), accessed 03 April 2014;
  • Peschard, J., ‘Quota Implementation in Mexico’, in The Implementation of Quotas: Latin American Experiences, Quota Report Series no. 2 (Stockholm: International IDEA, 2003), accessed 03 April 2014;
  • Zetterberg, P., ‘Quotas and Women’s Symbolic Representation: Lessons from Mexico’, in S. Franceschet, M. L. Krook and J. Piscopo (eds), The Impact of Gender Quotas (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012)


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