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At a glance

Structure of Parliament: Bicameral

Are there legislated quotas...

  • Yes for the Single/Lower House?
  • Yes for the Upper House?
  • Yes at the Sub-national level?

Are there voluntary quotas...

  • No adopted by political parties?

Is there additional information?

Yes

Afghanistan

(Islamic Republic of Afghanistan)

Single/Lower house

Wolesi Jirga / House of the People

Total seats:249
Total women:69
% women: 28%
Election year:2010
Electoral system:SNTV
Quota type: Reserved seats
Election details: IDEA Voter Turnout
IPU Parline
Legal sourceDetails
Quota type:
Reserved seats
ConstitutionAccording to Article 83 of the 2004 Constitution, 68 of the 249 total seats (27%) in the Lower House (Wolesi Jirga) are reserved for women, comprising at least 2 women for each of the 34 provinces of the country.
Electoral law The Electoral Commission will determine the number of reserved seats for women in each of the 34 electoral constituencies in order to fulfil the constitutional provision of the 68 reserved seats for women in the Lower House (Electoral Law 2010, Articles 20 and 23). From the total of 68 allocated seats for women, 3 seats shall be allocated to Kochis (2010 Regulation on Allocation of Wolesi Jirga Seats for Women).
Legal sanctions for non-compliance: Electoral law ‘If there are not enough female candidates on the list to occupy the allocated seat, the Commission shall adopt measures to make sure the seats do not remain vacant.’ (Article 23)
Rank order/placement rules: Electoral law The female candidates who receive the most votes in each electoral constituency shall be assigned with the reserved seats decided for the constituency. After meeting the quota requirements, the remaining seats (if any) in a constituency shall be assigned to candidates according to the rules of the electoral system (SNTV) regardless of their sex, (Electoral Law 2010, Article 23).

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Last updated 2014-03-31

Upper house

Meshrano Jirga / House of Elders

Total seats: 102
Total women:28
% women: 27%
Election year:2011
Electoral system:Indirectly elected / appointed
Quota type: Reserved seats
Election details: IPU Parline
Legal sourceDetails
Quota type:
Reserved seats
Constitution According to Article 84 of the Constitution, two-thirds of the total number of the members of the upper house (Meshrano Jirga) are indirectly elected and one-third is appointed by the president of the country. 50% of the individuals appointed by the president must be women.
Legal sanctions for non-compliance: N/A No data available
Rank order/placement rules: N/A No data available

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Last updated 2014-03-19

Quota at the Sub-National Level

Quota type:Reserved seats
Legal sourceDetails
Quota type:
Reserved seats
Electoral law At least 20% of the seats of each provincial council shall be allocated to female candidates with the most votes. The remainder of the seats shall be allocated to the candidates who receive the highest number of votes regardless of gender (Electoral Law, Article 30 (2)).
Legal sanctions for non-compliance: N/A Not applicable
Rank order/placement rules: N/A Not applicable

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Last updated 2014-03-31

Additional information

In the 2005 elections, the voters cast their ballots for individual candidates, sometimes on candidate lists which included 400 names. The Joint Electoral Management Body (JEMB), which was co-managed by the United Nations and the Afghan Government to administer the elections, decided the order of candidates on electoral lists by a ballot lottery, so that the sequencing would not be biased toward any candidate, and so that every elected representative was elected by virtue of the number of votes as opposed to a favourable placement on the party list (JEMB 2005:12).
Last updated 2014-01-17

Sources

LEGAL SOURCES:

OTHER SOURCES:

United States Library of Congress, ‘Afghanistan: President Approves New Election Law’, Global Legal Monitor (8 August 2013);

Joint Electoral Management Body, ‘Final Report, National Assembly and Provincial Council Elections 2005’,

Additional reading

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