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At a glance

Structure of Parliament: Unicameral

Are there legislated quotas...

  • Yes for the Single/Lower House?
  • Yes at the Sub-national level?

Are there voluntary quotas...

  • No adopted by political parties?

Is there additional information?

Yes

Ecuador

(Republic of Ecuador)

Single/Lower house

Asamblea Nacional / National Assembly

Total seats:137
Total women:53
% women: 39%
Election year:2013
Electoral system:List PR
Quota type: Legislated Candidate Quotas
Election details: IDEA Voter Turnout
IPU Parline
Legal sourceDetails
Quota type:
Legislated Candidate Quotas
ConstitutionAccording to Article 65 of the 2008 Constitution, ‘the State shall promote equality with respect to the representation of women and men in publicly appointed or elected office, in its executive and decision-making institutions, and political parties and movements. As for candidacies in multi-person elections, their participation shall be respected by rotation of power and sequencing. The State shall adopt affirmative action measures to guarantee the participation of discriminated sectors.’
Electoral law The National Assembly is composed of 137 members, 15 of whom are elected by proportional representation from a unique nationwide constituency. A further 116 are elected from multi-member constituencies and the remaining 6 members are elected from overseas constituencies by majority vote. According to Articles 99 (1) and 160 of the 2009 Electoral Law, in the candidate lists, for the elections through the system of proportional representation, the names of men and women candidates shall alternate. In addition, Article 160 requires that candidate lists for elections to the National Assembly, the Andean and Latin American Parliament, the regional councils, as well as the district, municipal and rural councils, shall be formed with an equal number sequence (woman–man or man–woman) to complete the total number of principal and alternative candidates.
Legal sanctions for non-compliance: Electoral law Article 105 (2) of the electoral law states that the candidate lists will be rejected by the Electoral Commission if they do not comply with the gender parity and alternation provisions of the Constitution and the electoral law.
Rank order/placement rules: Electoral law Alternation between men and women on the candidate lists is required (Articles 99 (1) and 160).

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Last updated 2014-04-02

Quota at the Sub-National Level

Quota type:Legislated Candidate Quotas
Legal sourceDetails
Quota type:
Legislated Candidate Quotas
Constitution ‘The State shall promote equality with respect to the representation of women and men in publicly appointed or elected office, in its executive and decision-making institutions, and political parties and movements. As for candidacies in multi-person elections, their participation shall be respected by rotation of power and sequencing. The State shall adopt affirmative action measures to guarantee the participation of discriminated sectors.’ (Article 65)
Electoral law Articles 160 and 163 of the electoral law require that candidate lists for elections to the regional councils, the district, municipal and rural councils, as well as the prefectures, shall be formed with an equal number sequence (woman–man or man–woman) to complete the total number of principal and alternative candidates.
Legal sanctions for non-compliance: Electoral law The candidate lists will be rejected by the Electoral Commission if they do not comply with the gender parity and alternation provisions of the Constitution and the Electoral Law (Article 105 (2)).
Rank order/placement rules: Electoral law Candidate lists shall be formed with an equal number sequence (woman–man or man–woman) to complete the total number of principal and alternative candidates (Articles 160 and 163).

Sources | Additional information | Contact us

Last updated 2014-03-21

Additional information

According to the 2009/2012 Electoral Law, the candidates of the political parties for the elections for the National Assembly, the Andean Parliament, the Latin-American parliament, and the regional and municipal councils will be chosen through internal primary elections in which the principles of parity and alternation will be applied (Article 160). Furthermore, political parties should respect these principles in internal elections for the nomination of candidates and in their internal structures and political functions (Articles 94 and 343).

In 1997 a 20 per cent quota was introduced for the Chamber of Deputies, and the percentage was set to increase by 5 per cent for each election cycle until parity was reached (Cañete 2008). In the 2002 national elections, some parties did not comply with the new electoral law, mostly regarding the rank-order rules. The Supreme Electoral Tribunal did not use its mandate to reject the registration of these lists (Cañete 2008). This system was overturned by the new Constitution and the laws now in effect.

Last updated 2013-12-02

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